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In the autumn of 1582 small detachment of cossacks under leadership of ataman Yermak defeated many thousands army of Siberian khan Kuchum and have occupied his capital located on high bank of the Irtysh river. 5 years later on the place of khan’s head quarter was founded Tobolsk - the first Russian city in Siberia Relying on white walls of the Tobolsk Kremlin, overcoming impassable woods and bogs, the Siberian colds and resistance of local tribes, less than for 60 years Russian pioneers passed 6000 kilometers and reached Pacific ocean. Tobolsk became capital of the Tobolsk Province - huge territory stretched from Ural up to Kamchatka. Almost 300 years Tobolsk remained capital of Siberia. And only in the beginning of 20-th century its value began to fall. The final impact which has transformed Tobolsk from capital in modest district city appeared construction of the railway through the city of Tyumen – southern the neighbour and the competitor of Tobolsk. During Soviet times Tobolsk was known only as one of islands of Stalin Archipelago Gulag. Tens magnificent stone churches are closed by communists and turn to rural dance halls and cow-sheds. In 70-s' years it was made a decision on construction of huge Petrochemical combine. Together with combine at the top of a natural plateau where there was only the Kremlin and a cemetery earlier, sad concrete quarters of typical building grew. People left the wooden houses and moved in featureless, but more comfortable new buildings of " the top city ». The bottom, historical part, was occupied by alcoholics and natives of neighboring becoming empty villages. At the end of the eightieth municipality has made the decision to replace wooden sidewalks of the "bottom" city with asphalt. The unreasoned decision has led to to destruction of the drainage systems, and the city began to be immersed in a bog. Hundreds monuments of Russian wooden and stone architecture sink in a unsteady mud. Local authorities set an alarm, desperately appeal about the help. Two years ago they managed to invite to Tobolsk Vladimir Putin who has promised to allocate from the federal budget of 2 billion roubles (70 million dollars) for restoration of city. Money while is not present. The hope still remains.













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